978-0-9700733-9-6 / 9780970073396

Big Bang: A Critical Analysis


Publisher:Cosmology Science Publishers



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About the book:

The theory that has come to be known as The Big Bang was originally proposed by a Catholic Priest, to make the Bible scientific. Critics have subsequently referred to the Big Bang theory as religion masquerading as science. Nevertheless, the Big Bang model is the generally accepted theory for the origin of universe. Nonetheless, findings in observational astronomy and revelations in the field of fundamental physics question the validity of the 'Big Bang' model, including the organization of galactic superstructures, the Cosmic Microwave Background, distant galaxies, gravitational waves, red shifts, and the age of local galaxies. Admittedly, the Big Bang research program has generated considerable research and there has been some confirmation for many hypotheses. However, outstanding questions remain and substantial alternative cosmology models, which also have been fruitful, remain viable and continue to evolve. Unfortunately, there has been a concerted effort to prevent research into alternate cosmologies. The Big Bang has become a sacred cow; which must not be questioned. One of the greatest challenges facing astrophysics is derivation of remoteness in cosmological objects. At large scales, it is almost entirely dependent upon the Hubble relationship between apparent brightness and spectral redshift for large luminous objects. However, this data has questionable validity. The assumption of scale invariance and universality of the Hubble law allowed the adoption of redshift as a standard calibration of cosmological distance. A major problem is the Big Bang model implies the existence of a creator. Why the Universe should have had a beginning, or why it would have been created, cannot be explained by classical or quantum physics. To support the Big Bang, estimates of the age & size of the cosmos, including claims of an accelerating universe, are based on an Earth-centered universe with the Earth as the measure of all things, exactly as dictated by religious theology. However, distance from Earth is not a measure of the age of far away galaxies. The Big Bang cannot explain why there are galaxies older than the Big Bang, why fully formed galaxies continue to be discovered at distances of over 13 billion light years from Earth, when according to Big Bang theory, no galaxies should exist at these distances. To support the Big Bang, red shifts are purposefully misinterpreted based on Pre-Copernican geo-centrism with Earth serving as ground zero. However, red shifts are variable, effected by numerous factors, and do not provide measures of time, age or distance. Nor can Big Bang theory explain why galaxies collide, why rivers of galaxies flow in the wrong direction, why galaxies clump together creating great walls of galaxies which took from 80 billion to 150 billion years to form. Big Bang theory requires phantom forces, constantly adjusted parameters, and ad hoc theorizing to explain away and to cover up the numerous holes in this theory. Finally, if at first there was a singularity, then the Big Bang was not a beginning, but a continuation.

Table of Contents
1. Big Bang? A Critical Review A. K. Lal, and R. Joseph, 2. Cosmic Agnosticism, Revisited Timothy E. Eastman, 3. Anomalous Redshift Data and the Myth of Cosmological Distance Hilton Ratcliffe, 4. Multiverse Scenarios in Cosmology: Classification, Cause, Challenge, Controversy, and Criticism Rüdiger Vaas, 5. An Infinite Fractal Cosmos R. L. Oldershaw, 6. Different Routes to Multiverses and an Infinite Universe. B.G. Sidharth 7. The Origin of the Modern Anthropic Principle, Helge Kragh, 8. Cosmos and Quantum: Frontiers for the Future. Menas Kafatos, 9. Infinite Universe vs the Myth of the Big Bang: Redshifts, Black Holes, Acceleration.

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