Designed for use on courses in introductory microbiology in departments of biology and microbiology, this seventh edition covers the complete range of microbiological topics. Two new co-authors cover the areas of genetics and molecular biology (Jack Parker) and microbiology and immunology (John Martinko). This edition expands the introduction to include material on the evolution of microbial cells and microbial diversity, the applications of microbiology to everyday life, and historical developments during the 20th century. The coverage of metabolism, biosynthesis and nutrition in several areas such as the mechanics of membrane-mediated ATP synthesis and alternative modes of energy generation is also updated. Coverage of macromolecules and molecular genetics is revised and includes several pieces of new art to portray the numerous discoveries in this area. Other new features of this edition include: a re-written chapter on immunology and immunity; description of several innovative clinical diagnostic methods that have emerged from advances in genetics and immunology; updated and expanded coverage of AIDS; and new material on pathogenic fungi, toxic shock, rabies, Lyme disease and malaria.