Primary data acquisition is the front end of mapping, GIS and remote sensing and involves: aviation, navigation, photography, cameras (film and digital systems), GPS systems, surveying (ground control), photogrammetry, computerized systems and above all - keeping abreast of modern techniques. This book deals with differential GPS systems, survey flight management systems (both simple and sophisticated), film types, modern film survey cameras such as LH RC-30, Z/I RMK-TOP, digital cameras, infrared methods, laser profilers, airborne laser mapping, satellite systems, laboratory processing (chemical and digital), and camera platforms (fixed wing and helicopter). A fresh approach to the subject includes: soft-copy photogrammetry using desktop computerized systems, film scanners and direct digital camera inputs. Comparisons are made between old film-based technologies and the new digital camera systems, including the Z/I modular digital mapping camera and the LH "push-broom" ADS 40 camera. The book should be useful to survey operators, aerial photographers, photogrammetrists, surveyors, cartographers and mapping scientists, GIS specialists and the new generation of "desk-top" mapmakers. It is a standard reference for survey practitioners, civil engineers and planner, flight crews, and academics and students in surveying, photogrammetry, remote sensing, GIS and earth sciences.