This book is both an indispensable reference on the history of astronomy in Australia, and a highly readable study of a scientific discipline in the context of emerging nationhood. It covers not only the science, but the individuals involved and the social and economic climate in which they worked. Starting from the ancient Aboriginal beliefs about the Sky World--the earliest known astronomy anywhere in the world--the authors lead us to the most exciting, high-tech, current and projected research being carried out at Australia's world-class astronomy facilities and universities. The authors cover all branches of astronomy--optical, infrared, X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, gravitational wave and theoretical--and they include the contribution of amateur astronomers. The nontechnical language, many illustrations, and explanatory figures, ensure that this guide will appeal to a wide range of readers, including professional astronomers, historians of science, students, amateur astronomers and general readers.